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中国传媒大学2008年博士研究生入学考试试题

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发表于 2010-3-29 15:04 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Part

Listening Comprehension (20%)

(略)

Part Reading Comprehension (40 %)
Directions: There are 4 four passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Passage one: Questions 21-25 are based on the following passage.
Pundits who want to sound judicious are fond of warning against generalizing. Each country is different, they say, and no one story fits all of Asia. This is, of course, silly: all of these economies plunged into economic crisis within a few months of each other, so they must have had something in common.
In fact, the logic of catastrophe was pretty much the same in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and South Korea. (Japan is a very different story.) In each case investors—mainly, but not entirely, foreign banks who had made short-term loans—all tried to pull their money out at the same time. The result was a combined banking and currency crisis: a banking crisis because no bank can convert all its assets into cash on short notice; a currency crisis because panicked investors were trying not only to convert long-term assets into cash, but to convert baht or rupiah into dollars. In the face of the stampede, governments had no good options. If they let their currencies plunge inflation would soar and companies that had borrowed in dollars would go bankrupt; if they tried to support their currencies by pushing up interest rates, the same firms would probably go bust from the combination of debt burden and recession. In practice, countries’ split the difference—and paid a heavy price regardless.
Was the crisis a punishment for bad economic management? Like most cliches, the catchphrase “crony capitalism” has prospered because it gets at something real: excessively cozy relationships between government and business really did lead to a lot of bad investments. The still primitive financial structure of Asian business also made the economies peculiarly vulnerable to a loss of confidence. But the punishment was surely disproportionate to the crime, and many investments that look foolish in retrospect seemed sensible at the time.
Given that there were no good policy options, was the policy response mainly on the fight track? There was frantic blame-shifting when everything in Asia seemed to be going wrong: now there is a race to claim credit when some things have started to go right. The IMF points to Korea’s recovery—and more generally to the fact that the sky didn’t fall after all—as proof that its policy recommendations were right. Never mind that other IMF clients have done far worse, and that the economy of Malaysia—which refused IMF help, and horrified respectable opinion by imposing capital controls—also seems to be on the mend. Malaysia’s prime Minister, by contrast, claims full credit for any good news—even though neighboring economies also seem to have bottomed out.
The truth is that an observer without any ax to grind would probably conclude that none of the policies adopted either on or in defiance of the IMF’s advice made much difference either way. Budget policies, interest rate policies, banking reform—whatever countries tried, just about all the capital that could flee, did. And when there was no mere money to run, the natural recuperative powers of the economies finally began to prevail. At best, the money doctors who purported to offer cures provided a helpful bedside manner; at worst, they were like medieval physicians who prescribed bleeding as a remedy for all ills.
Will the patients stage a full recovery? It depends on exactly what you mean by “full”. South Korea’s industrial production is already above its pre-crisis level; but in the spring of 1997 anyone who had predicted zero growth in Korean industry over the next two years would have been regarded as a reckless doomsayer. So if by recovery you mean not just a return to growth, but one that brings the region’s performance back to something like what people used to regard as the Asian norm, they have a long way to go.
21. According to the passage, which of the following is NOT the writer’s opinion?
A. Countries paid a heavy price for whichever measure taken.
B. Countries all found themselves in an economic dilemma.
C. Withdrawal of foreign capital resulted in the crisis.
D. Most governments chose one of the two options.
22. The writer thinks that those Asian countries______.
A. well deserved the punishment
B. invested in a senseless way at the time
C. were unduly punished in the crisis
D. had bad relationships between government and business
23. In this passage, IMF is the abbreviation of______.
A. International Marketing Federation
B. International Metalworkers’ Federation
C. International Monetary Fund
D. International Manufacture Foundation
24. It can be inferred from the passage that IMF policy recommendations______.
A. were far from a panacea in all cases
B. were feasible in their recipient countries
C. failed to work in their recipient countries
D. were rejected unanimously by Asian countries
25. At the end of the passage, the writer seems to think that a full recovery of the Asian economy is______.
A. due
B. remote
C. imaginative
D. unpredictable

Passage Two: Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
Among the most powerful engines of modern economic growth have been technological changes that raise output relative to inputs. But compared with those of the nineteenth century, technological changes remained minor and sporadic in the colonial period. It preceded the era of the cotton gin, steam power, and the many metallurgical advances that vastly increased the tools available to workers. In iron production, learning by doing and adapting remained the key source of labor and fuel savings in the late colonial period—learning to reduce the fuel input to minimal levels saved on labor needed to gather charcoal and work the forges. Technology remained static and forged sizes constant, however. The evidence in agriculture also indicates no significant leaps in technology—old ways prevailed and farming was typically stable and uniform.
In shipping, the same conclusion is reached. This period preceded the era of iron ships and steam, and both ship material and the power source of ships remained unchanged. Even increasingly complex sails and rigs and the alterations of hull shapes failed to increase ship speed and, in any case, did not represent fundamental advances in knowledge.
As a matter of fact, during the early 17th century, Dutch shipping had already displayed many of the essential characteristics of design, manning, and other input requirements that were found on the most advanced vessels in the western Atlantic in the 1760s and 1770s. The Dutch first introduced the flyboat, or flute, a specialized merchant vessel designed to carry bulk commodities. The flyboat was exceptionally long compared with its width, had a flat bottom, and was lightly built. In addition its rig was simple, and its crew size was small. In contrast, English and colonial vessels were built, gunned, and manned more heavily to meet the dual purpose of trade and defense. Their solid construction and armaments were costly—not only in materials but in manpower. Larger crews were needed to handle the more complex riggings on these vessels as well as their guns.
It became evident that the flyboat could be used advantageously in certain bulk trades where the danger of piracy was low. However, in the rich but dangerous trades into the Mediterranean and the West Indies, more costly ships were required. In general, high risks in all colonial waters led to one of the most notable features of 17th-century shipping? the widespread use of cannons and armaments on trading vessels. Such characteristics were still observed in certain waters throughout much of the 18th century. Until around 1750 in the Caribbean, especially near Jamaica, vessels weighing more than 100 tons were almost always armed and even small vessels usually carded some guns.
Privateering also added to the disorder. As a common practice, nation-states often gave private citizens license to harass the ships of rivals states. These privateering commissions or “letters of marque” were issued without constraint in wartime, and even in peacetime they were occasionally given to citizens who had suffered losses due to the actions of subjects from an offending state. Since privateers frequently ignored the constraints of their commissions, privateering was often difficult to distinguish from common piracy.
Other government policies also tended to aggravate existing sea hazards. Adding to the supply of privateers and pirates, some of the islands were deliberately peopled with convicts. Of course, piracy was not confined to the Caribbean. Pirates lurked safely in the inlets of North Carolina, from which they regularly raided vessels trading at Charleston. In 1718 it was exclaimed that “every month brought intelligence of renewed outrages of vessels sacked on the high seas, burned with their cargo, or seized and converted to the nefarious uses of the outlaws.” Local traders, shippers, and government officials in the Carolinas repeatedly solicited the Board of Trade for protection. In desperation, Carolina’s Assembly appropriated funds in 1719 to support private vessels in the hope of driving the pirates from their seas. These pleas and protective actions were mostly in vain, but finally, as the benefits of assuring safe trade lanes rose relative to the costs of eliminating piracy, the Royal Navy took action. By the early 1740s, piracy had been eliminated from the western Atlantic.

The fall of piracy was paralleled by the elimination of ship armaments and the reduction of crew sizes. As such, this was a process of technical diffusion. Without piracy, specialized cargo-carrying vessels similar to the flyboat were designed, thereby substantially reducing the costs of shipping.

26. Which of the following adjectives does NOT describe technological changes in the colonial period?
A. Irregular.
B. Inactive.
C. Flourishing.
D. Small-scaled.

27. It can be inferred from the fourth paragraph that in the mid-18th century
.

A. pirates frequently attacked ships sailing along the Caribbean
B. besides trading vessels, other ships were also equipped with guns
C. it was mores dangerous to trade in the Mediterranean
D. the flyboat was often used in the Caribbean
28. In the colonial period, it was difficult to tell privateering from piracy because those with private citizen license
.

A. attacked every ship they saw
B. didn’t observe the restrictions
C. were attacked by other states
D. cooperated with pirates
29. One thing that people did to fight against pirates is that
.

A. they appealed to some organizations for aid
B. they financed private ship to combat pirates
C. they mobilized more peoples in all walks of life
D. they bid a high price for the elimination of pirates
30. The best title for the passage is
.

A. Technological change
B. Pirates, Vessels and Technological Change
C. Pirates and Vessels
D. The Historical Development of Vessels
Passage Three: Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
Human beings have never before had such a bad press. By all reports, we are unable to get anything right these days, and there seems to be almost nothing good to say for ourselves. In just the past century we have increased our population threefold and will double it before the next has run out. We have swarmed over the open face of the earth, occupies every available acre of livable space, displaced numberless other creatures from their accustomed niches, caused one extinction after another—with ore to come—and polluted all our waterway and even parts of the oceans. Now, in our efforts to make energy and keep warm, we appear to be witlessly altering the earth’s climate by inserting too much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere; if we do not pull up short, we will produce a new greenhouse around the planet, melting the Antarctic ice shelf and swamping all coastlines.
Not to mention what we are doing to each other, and what we are thinking seriously of doing in the years just ahead with the most remarkable toy ever made by man, the thermonuclear bomb.
Our capacity for folly has never been matched by any other species. The long record of evolution instructs us that the way other creatures get along in nature is to accommodate, to fit in, to give a little whenever they take a little. The rest of life does this all the time, setting up symbiotic arrangement whenever the possibility comes into view. Except for us, the life an intricate system, even, as I see it, an organism. An embryo may be conceived, as each one of us was first brought to life, as a single successful cell.
I have no memory of ever having been a single cell, 70 years ago. But I was, and whenever I think of it, at the sheer luck. But the thought that the whole biosphere—all that conjoining life, all 10 million or whatever the number is (a still incalculable number) of what we call species of living thingshad its collective beginning as a single, solitary cell, 3.5 or so billion years ago, sweep me off my feet.
Our deepest folly is the notion that we are in charge of the place, that we own it and can somehow run it. We are beginning to treat the earth as a sort of domesticated household pet, living in an environment invented by us, part kitchen garden, part park, household pet, living in an environment invented by us, part kitchen garden, part park, part zoo. It is an idea we must rid ourselves of soon, for it is not so. It is the other way around. We are not separate beings. We are a living part of the earth’s life, owned and operated by the earth, probably specialized for functions on its behalf that we have not yet glimpsed. Conceivably, and this is the best thought I have about us, we might turn out to be a sort of sense-organ for the whole creature, a set of eyes, even a storage place for thought. Perhaps, if we continue our own embryo-logic development as a species, it will be our privilege to carry seeds of life to other parts of the galaxy.
But right now, we have a lot to learn. One of our troubles may be that we still so new and so young. In the way evolution clocks time, we arrived on the scene only a moment ago, down from the trees and puzzling over our appeasing thumbs, wondering what we are supposed to do with the flabbergasting gift of language and metaphor. Our very juvenility could account for the ways in which we fumble, drop things, get things wrong.
I like this thought, even though the historians might prefer to put it otherwise. They might say, some of them do say, that we have been at it thousands of years, trying out one failed culture after another, folly after folly, and now we are about to run out our string. As a biologist, I do not agree. I say that a few thousand years is hardly enough time for a brand-new species to draw breath.
Now, with that thought, for the moment anyway, I feel better about us. We have the making of exceedingly useful working parts. We are just new to the task, that’s our trouble. Indeed, we are not yet clear in our minds what the task is, beyond the imperative to learn.
We have all the habits of a social species, more compulsively social than any other, even bees and ants. Our nest, or hive, is language; we are held together by speech, at each other all day long. Our great advantage over all other social animals is that we possess the kind of brain that permits us to change our minds. We are not obliged, as the ants are, to follow genetic blueprints for every last detail of our behavior. Our genes are more cryptic and ambiguous in their instructions: get along, says our DNA, talk to each other, figure out the world, be useful, and above all keep an eye out for affection.
Sometimes around a billion years ago, the bacterial cells that had been the sole occupants of the earth for the preceding two-and-a-half-billion years began joining up to form much larger cells, with nuclei like ours. Certain lines of bacteria had learned earlier on to make use of oxygen for getting their energy. Somehow or other, these swarm into the new cells and turned into the mitochondria of “higher” nucleated cells. The creatures are still presence and hard work, we could never make a move or even a song.
The chemical messages exchanged among all the cells in our bodies, regulating us, are also antique legacies. Sophisticated hormones like insulin, growth hormones and the sex steroids, a multitude of peptides, including the endorphins, which modulate the functions of our brains, were invented long ago by the bacteria and their immediate progeny, the protozoan. They still make them, for purposes entirely obscure. We almost certainly inherited the genes needed for things like these from our ancestors in the mud.
One important thing we have already learned. We are a novel species, but we are constructed out of the living parts of very ancient organisms. We go back a long way. We may be the greatest and brainiest of all biological opportunities on the planet, but we owe debts of long standing to the beings that came before us, and to those that now surround us and will help us along into the future.
31. What is the “bad press” referring to in the first sentence?
A. The ill reputation about newspapers not telling truths.
B. The fact that no good news about man has been reported in the press.
C. The urge to stop man for making any more mistakes.
D. The pressure on man caused by a pessimistic view of the world.
32. The author thinks that it is the most stupid thing for us to

.

A. give a little when we take a little from nature
B. conduct ourselves as if we were part of a coherent body of connected life
C. conceive the life of the earth as a single organism
D. try to dominate the earth as if we were the owner and the operator
33. We are a young and new species in all the following senses EXCEPT that ______.
A. a few thousand years is nothing in terms of evolution
B. we are probably the sense-organ for the life on earth
C. we often make mistakes and grope in the dark
D. there is so much around us that we need to learn about
34. Like some other creatures, man also has ______.
A. the gift of language
B. the variety to change his mind
C. the variety of individual behavior pattern
D. the habit of socializing with each other
35. To sum up, the author is trying to convince us that we______.
A. must learn to control and make better use of the world
B. are the most foolish species on earth
C. have a lot to learn about the life system of which we are a part
D. are a delicate animal since we have been the outcome of tiny cells
Passage Four: Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.
I am one of the many city people who are always saying that given the choice we would prefer to live in the country away from the dirt and noise of a large city. I have managed to convince myself that if it weren’t for my job I would immediately head out for the open spaces and go back to nature in some sleepy village buried in the county. But how realistic is the dream?
Cities can be frightening places. The majority of the population lives, in massive tower blocks, noisy, dirty and impersonal. The sense of belonging to a community tends to disappear when you live fifteen floors up. All you can see from your window is sky, or other blocks of fiats. Children become aggressive and nervouscooped up at home all day, with nowhere to play; their mothers feel isolated from the rest of the world. Strangely enough, whereas in the past the inhabitants of one street all knew each other, nowadays people on the same floor in tower blocks don’t even say hello to each other.
Country life, on the other hand, differs from this kind of isolated existence in that a sense of community generally binds the inhabitants of small villages together. People have the advantage of knowing that there is always someone to turn to when they need help. But country life has disadvantages too. While it is true that you may be among friends in a village, it is also true that you are cut off from the exciting and important events that take place in cities. There’s little possibility of going to a new show or the latest movie. Shopping becomes a major problem, and for anything slightly out of the ordinary you have to goon an expedition to the nearest large town. The city-dweller who leaves for the country is often oppressed by a sense of unbearable stillness and quiet.
What, then, is the answer? The country has the advantage of peace and quiet, but suffers from the disadvantage of being cut off; the city breeds a feeling of isolation, and constant noise batters the senses. But one of its main advantages is that you are at the centre of things, and that life doesn’t come to an end at half-past nine at night. Some people have found (or rather bought) a compromise between the two: they have expressed their preference for the “quiet life” by leaving the suburbs and moving to villages within commuting distance of large cities. They generally have about as much sensitivity as the plastic flowers they leave behindthey are polluted with strange ideas about change and improvement which they force on to the unwilling original inhabitants of the villages.
What then of my dreams of leaning on a cottage gate and murmuring “morning” to the locals as they pass by. I’m keen on the idea, but you see there’s my cat, Toby. I’m not at all sure that he would take to all that fresh air and exercise in the long grass. I mean, can you see him mixing with all those hearty males down the farm? No, he would rather have the electric imitation-coal fire any evening.
36. We get the impression from the first paragraph that the author______.
A. used to live in the country
B. used to work in the city

C. works in the city
D. lives in the country

37. In the author’s opinion, the following may cause city people to be unhappy EXCEPT______.
A. a strong sense of fear
B. lack of communication

C. housing conditions
D. a sense of isolation

38. The passage implies that it is easy to buy the following things in the country EXCEPT ______.
A. daily necessities
B. fresh fruits
C. designer clothes
D. fresh vegetables

39. According to the passage, which of the following adjectives best describes those people who work in large cities and live in villages?
A. Original.
B. Quiet.
C. Arrogant.
D. Insensitive.

40. Do you think the author will move to the country?
A. Yes, he will do so.
B. No, he will not do so.

C. It is difficult to tell.
D. He is in two minds.


Part Vocabulary (10%)
41. The police have offered a large ______ for information leading to the robber’s arrest.
A. award
B. compensation
C. prize
D. reward

42. I arrives at the airport so late that I ______ missed the plane.
A. only
B. quite
C. narrowly
D. seldom

43. The popularity of the film shows that the reviewers’ fears were completely______.
A. unjustified
B. unjust
C. misguided
D. unaccepted

44. The head of the Museum was______ and let us actually examine the ancient manuscripts.
A. promising
B. agreeing
C. pleasing
D. obliging

45. The multinational corporation was making a take-over ______ for a property company.
A. application
B. bid
C. proposal
D. suggestion

46. The party’s reduced vote was ______ of lack of support for its policies.
A. indicative
B. positive
C. revealing
D. evident

47. There has been a ______ lack of communication between the union and the management.
A. regretful
B. regrettable
C. regretting
D. regretted

48. The teacher______ expects his students to pass the university entrance examination.
A. confidently
B. proudly
C. assuredly
D. confidently

49. The ______ family in Chinese cities now spends more money on housing than before.
A. normal
B. average
C. usual
D. general

50. The new colleague ______ to have worked in several big corporations before he joined our company.
A. confess
B. declares
C. claims
D. confirms

51. This sort of rude behavior in public hardly ______ a person in your position.
A. becomes
B. fits
C. supports
D. improves

52. I must leave now.______, if you want that book I’ll bring it next time.
A. Accidentally
B. Incidentally
C. Eventually
D. Naturally

53. After a long delay, she ______ replying to my e-mail.
A. got away with
B. got back at
C. got back
D. got round to

54. Personal computers are no longer something beyond the ordinary people; they are ______ available these days.
A. promptly
B. instantly
C. readily
D. quickly

55. In my first year at the university, I learnt the ______ of journalism.
A. basics
B. basic
C. elementary
D. elements

56. According to the new tax law, any money earned over that level is taxed at the ______ of 59 percent.
A. ratio
B. percentage
C. proportion
D. rate

57. Thousands of ______ at the stadium came to their feet to pay tribute to an outstanding performance.
A. audience
B. participants
C. spectators
D. observers

58. We stood still, gazing out over the limitless ______ of the dessert.
A. space
B. expanse
C. stretch
D. land

59. Doctor often ______ uneasiness in the people they deal with.
A. smell
B. hear
C. sense
D. tough

60. Mary sat at the table, looked at the plate and ______ her lips.
A. smacked
B. opened
C. parted
D. separated


Part Translation (15%)
Direction: Translate the underlined sentences into Chinese on the answer sheet.
The dangerous idea
Click to the Sixth Century BC. Hippasus of Metapontum stands on a boat in the Aegean, pondering his fate. Pythagoras himself sentences him to death for revealing a secret that undermined the Greek way of thinking.
Pythagoras is noted throughout the world for his famed theorem: the square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. The theorem makes the universe understandable. (1) Its ratios and proportions are keys to explaining mathematics, science, music, nature, harmony and beauty in a civilized society.
The problem is that Pythagoras had it wrong. To the Greeks the number zero does not exist. A ratio with zero in it defies nature, and thus the logic of the universe. But the math is incontrovertible. The Pythagoreans figure it out, responding by forming a brotherhood to deny the existence of zero, to preserve the mathematical laws that make them leaders in civilized society, and to protect their charismatic leader.
Hippos, a mathematician and member of the brotherhood, spills the secret about irrational numbers and an irrational universe. The Pythagoreans take him to sea, tossing him overboard for exposing a self-serving theory with an unpopular truth.
Click to present day. Washington Post executive editor Leonard Downie Jr. and former Post associate editor Robert Kaiser arrive to deliver “the news about the news.”(2) The Washington Post editors make an old argument for a new time: news is sinking to another new low. Downie and Kaiser blame consolidation, convergence, and proliferation of media for undermining good journalism and failing to inform society. They acknowledge that they come to their perspective from “the privileged perch” of the Washington Post. The view from the privileged perch is predictably Pythagorean.
As an interconnected society moves toward participating in the news, the Brotherhood of News seeks to protect its values and exert its control. (3) Just as zero changed the equation shaping humanity’s vision of the universe, accessible media changes the equation that shapes news and informs society. Everyone is a journalist in the age of access. But for most news organizations, collaboration with their audience is an irrational concept, a dangerous idea.
Click back to Pythagoras. The story unfolds like a video game. A health-conscious leader who believes indigestion causes all disease, Pythagoras especially fears beans because they cause flatulence in past, present and future lives.(4) His arrogance grows, his views become extreme, and soon his secret society crumbles. Enemies set out to kill him. A mob sets his house on fire. Members of the brotherhood are slaughtered. Pythagoras flees, but he stops at a bean field, declaring that he’d rather be killed than cross the field. His pursuers oblige. They cut his throat. (5) Arrogance and eternal flatulence. Pythagoras dies for behaviors and beliefs that put him out of touch with the rest of the world.

Part V Writing (15%)
Write a 250-word composition about your point of view on Online Sharing Culture.
Your composition is to include 3 paragraphs:
1. In the first paragraph, state your main idea.
2. In the second paragraph, support your main idea with evidence.
3. In the last paragraph, bring your composition to a natural conclusion.
Attention: Write your composition on the answer sheet.

参考答案及解析
Part

Listening Comprehension (20%)

(略)
Part Reading Comprehension (40 %)
Passage one
21.D
文中第二段,讲述了遭受金融危机影响的国家had no good options,如果贬值货币就会导致通货膨胀;如果提高汇率,又会导致公司破产,因此在这两难境地中,countries split the difference“采取折中策略”,并不是二者择其一,选项D不正确。
22.C
第三段,作者在发表对此次经济危机的看法时指出,亚洲各国政府的确存在许多过错,但the punishment was surely disproportionate to the crime,据此可推断,作者认为那些亚洲国家遭受的惩罚过于严重,选项C“在经济危机中遭受了过度惩罚”正确。其他选项的错误之处在于:选项B“按照世界货币基金组织建议行事”不正确,因为作者在第5段指出是否按照该组织建议行事并没有区别。选项C“没能符合亚洲标准”与选项D“采取了有效的货币措施”皆为原文片语信息断章取义的编撰。
23.C
从文中可以知道IMF是一个与经济及货币有关的组织。另根据常识可以知道答案为选项C
24.A
第四段,作者谈到Korea采纳了IMF的建议,经济得到了复苏,而other IMF clients have done far worse“其他一些采纳了IMF建议的国家情况却更糟”,此外Malaysia拒绝了IMF的援助,经济恢复势头良好,这都证明了IMF的建议并非万能灵药。其次,可以从整篇文章的情感来考虑,作者的情感基调是否定的。其他选项的错误之处在于:选项A“被认为是不负责任的厄运预言者”,选项B“在接受基金的国家具有可行性”与选项D“受到亚洲国家的一致排斥”皆为原文片语信息断章取义的编撰。
25.B
文章结尾部分,作者评论亚洲经济未来发展中能否完全康复时指出they have a long way to go“他们还有较长的路要走”,也就是距完全康复还很遥远,选项B正确。
Passage Two
26.C
第一段描述technological changes的词有minorsporadicstaticconstantno significant leaps。选项C flourishing“繁茂的,欣欣向荣的“不符合这组词中大多数词表达的意思。
27.A
第四段末尾提到十八世纪中期,in the Caribbean, especially near Jamaica, vessels…were almost always armed and even small vessels usually carded some guns,这些船只武装是因为海盗经常来袭。
28.B
第五段最后一句指出,因为privateers frequently ignored the constraints of their commissions,所以很难将他们与海盗区分开来。
29.A
倒数第二段指出,local traders, shippers, and government official…repeatedly solicited the Board of Trade for protection,之后Carolina’s Assembly appropriated funds…to support private vessels in the hope of driving the pirates from their seassolicit意为“恳求”。
30.B
本文阐述了海盗、船只以及技术的发展,只有选项B能够完全概括本文内容。
Passage Three
31.B
第一段第二句By all reports, we are unable to get anything right these days, and there seems to be almost nothing good to say for ourselves,是对第一句的解释扩充。从此可以看出所谓bad press就是选项B表达的意思。
32.D
第五段第一句指出Our deepest folly is the notion that we are in charge of the placethat we own it and can somehow run it,也即选项D的内容。
33.B
此题应该在第六段中找答案。本段开头就提到we still so new and so young。下文是对此的分析,其中选项ACD都在本段中提及了。选项B是作者在第五段中提出的一个想法。
34.D
本题答案在倒数第四段。在第六段中已经提到语言能力是人类特有天赋(the flabbergasting gift of language and metaphor)。而根据倒数第四段Our great advantage over all other social animals is that we…change our minds可知选项B的内容“改变心意”也是人类特有的。从We are not obliged, as the ants are, to follow genetic blueprints for every last detail of our behavior又可以得知选项C的内容“个体的行为模式”也是为人类所独享。只有选项D的内容“与彼此进行社会交往的习惯”是人类和其他动物都一样拥有的,本段的We have all the habits of a social species, more compulsively social than any other, even bees and ants可以帮助判断。
35.C
文章最后一段是对全问的总结。其中提到we owe debts of long standing to the beings that came before us, and to those that now surround us and will help us along into the future,意即希望人类深入了解我们身在其中的生命系统,也即选项C的内容。
Passage Four
36.C
从文中第一段if it weren’t for my job I would immediately head out for the open spaces“要不是由于工作,我会马上回到空旷的郊外…”可判断,作者是在城市工作,选项C正确。
37.A
文中第二段叙述了城市生活的弊端,其中live in massive tower blocksnoisy反应出城市居住条件令人不悦;feel isolated from the rest of the world对应选项D;最后一句“同楼层居民don’t even say hello to each other”,这反应出生活在城市的人缺乏交流,只有选项A“一种强烈的恐惧感”在文中未提及。
38.C
第三段谈到,在乡村,购物存在一些困难,for anything slightly out of the ordinary you have to go on an expedition to the nearest large town.“稍微特别的物品,人们就必须到附近大城镇去买”。四个选项中,designer clothes“设计师制作的时装”是特别的东西,因此不能在乡村买到。
39.D
从文中倒数第二段they generally have about as much sensitivity as the plastic flowers“他们的敏感度就像那些塑料花一样”,而塑料花是没有感觉的,可判断工作在城市居住在乡村的人感觉很迟顿、麻木。
40.B
结尾段落作者没有直接表述自己是否愿意居住在乡村,但他通过“比起农场生活来,自己的宠物猫Toby也更愿意享受城市生活中的electric imitation-coal fire”,暗示了自己也不会搬到乡村。
Part Vocabulary (10%)
41.D
为了得到任何有助于逮捕抢劫者的信息,警方开出了一大笔酬金。reward意为“报酬,赏金”。award意为“奖品,奖金”。compensation意为“补偿金”。prize意为“奖品,奖赏”。根据句意,选项D为正确答案。
42.C
句意:我到达机场是如此晚以至于刚好错过了飞机。narrowly 在此指时间上非常紧的刚刚好错过,其他意思都不符合。
43.A
句意:电影大受欢迎,这表明影评家的恐惧是毫无道理的。unjustified没有理由的。unjust不公正的。misguided误入歧途的。unaccepted不被接受的。
44.D
句意:博物馆长非常热心,带我们参观了古代的手抄本。obliging乐于助人的,恳切的。promising
有希望的,有前途的。agreeing不是形容词,用法错误。pleasing令人喜爱的,使人愉快的。
45.B
句意:那家跨国公司正提议接管一家地产公司。bid投票,报价。make a bid for出价买,企图获得。application申请,请求。proposal提议。suggestion建议。
46.D
句意:该党选票减少表明它的政策不受支持。indicative指示的,表明的。positive积极的。revealing暴露的,显露的。evident明白的,明显的。
47.B
句意:令人遗憾的是工会和管理层之间一直缺乏沟通。regrettable令人遗憾的,可惜的。regretful遗憾的。regrettingregretted为分词形式,不能修饰名词。
48.D
句意:这位老师满有把握地期待他的学生们通过大学入学考试。confidently确信地,有把握地。confidentially机密地,保密地。proudly自豪地。assuredly无疑地,一定。
49. B
句意:中国城市的普通家庭在住房上的开销比以前要多。average普通的,中等的。normal正常的,标准的。usual通常的。general一般性的,普遍的。
50.C
句意:那位新同事声称,他在进入我们公司之前在好几家大公司工作过。claim意为“宣称,声称。confess承认。declare宣布。confirm确认,证实。
51. B
句意:在公共场合这种粗鲁的行为的确不适合你这种身份的人。fit适合,符合。become成为。support支持。improve提高。
52.B
句意:我现在必须走了。顺便说一下,如果你想要那本书,我下次给你带过来。incidentally顺便提及;附带地。accidentally偶然地;意外地。eventually最后,终于。naturally自然地。
53.D
句意:在延误了这么长时间之后,她终于回复了我的电子邮件。get round to腾出时间来做。get away with侥幸成功,逃脱处罚。get back at[]实行报复。get back回来,恢复,找回(失物等),上台重新(执政)
54.C
句意:个人电脑不再是普通人遥不可及的梦想了,现在人们很容易就可以拥有。
55.A
句意:我在大学的第一年学到了新闻的基础知识。basics学科的基础;基本原则,常用作复数。elementary简单的;基本的。element元素;要素。
56.D
句意:按照新的税务法,收入超过以上水平的部分将按照59%的比例收税。at the rate of按照的比率。ratio(表示两个数量之间关系的)比例,比率。percentage百分数,百分比。proportion比例协调,均衡。
57.C
句意:露天大型运动场成千上万的观众前来为这突出的表演捧场。spectator(尤其指事件或体育运动的)观众,观看者。audience观众。participant参与者。observer观测者;观察者。
58.C
句意:我们站着不动,向远处眺望那无垠的沙漠。expanse宽广的空间。space空间;间隔。stretch一段时间;一段路程。land陆地;地带。
59.C
句意:医生经常能感觉到他们治疗的病人的不安。sense感到;理解;认识到。smell闻出味道。hear听见;听到。tough忍受;坚持。
60.A
句意:玛丽坐在桌边,看着盘中的食物垂涎三尺。smack one’s lips垂涎三尺。openpartseparate都有张开嘴的意思,不如A项恰切。
Part Translation (15%)
1)毕达哥拉斯定理中的比例是解释文明社会中数学、科学、音乐、自然、和谐与美的关键。
2)华盛顿邮报的编辑用一句老话来解释新时代的现象:新闻正在走向又一个新低谷。
3)正如零改变了人类对宇宙的幻想,人们容易接触到的媒体也在改变着新闻以及社会对信息的获取。
4)他变得越发傲慢,观点也越发极端,不久他秘密的社会也垮掉了。
5)傲慢,永远那么自负,毕达哥拉斯为了他那与世隔绝的行为和信仰而死。
Part V Writing (15%)
Online Sharing Culture—A Culture That Helps

Internet has created a new culture among the network community, where participants are willingly sharing opinions and personal information on the net—the online sharing culture. This new culture really helps people, especially students.


The online sharing culture is the culture of sharing personal information, daily activities and thoughts and it encourages the growth of online community. Nevertheless, it is found that many people who participate in newsgroups are willing to offer advice and assistance, presumably driven by a mixture of motivations including altruism, a wish to be seen as an expert, and the thanks and positive feedback contributed by the people they have helped. Based on these assumptions it is believed that the online sharing culture can be manipulated and utilized into the learning context.


Collaborative learning and asynchronous discussions are some of the technology used to capture human knowledge, the tacit and explicit knowledge. In the context of learning, especially with the availability of rich media content learning, learners are now reachable and more aware of various mediums and medias for their learning resources. Collaboration systems, groupware, online computer conferencing and online discussion databases are among potential tools to capture tacit knowledge and to apply it to immediate problems. Peer-to-peer activity in learning means resource sharing, active communication, forming learning communities in shared information spaces and building trust and social relationships between peers.


Amazingly the online sharing culture creates bonding among strangers, a person that they never meet in person. They help each other, they share and they care about each other. Realizing the potential of this online culture, implementing it into learning is hoped to be as much as exciting and motivating as they willingly share and participate in blogging culture.
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