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[北京] 中科院2009考博英语翻译原文

发表于 2009-4-4 17:58 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Efforts to provide professional trauma counseling assume that trauma is the main psychosocial issue following the earthquake. In fact, however, trauma is only a small part of a wide array of psychosocial issues that ought to be addressed. For many earthquake survivors, the main issue is not traumatic memories of the earthquake but stresses associated with their current living situation. These stresses include the lack of safety and security, the loss of livelihoods, lack of appropriate shelter, changes in family relations, threats of and exposure to gender-based violence, substance abuse, and uncertainties about the future. Because these stresses are holistic, they require comprehensive supports that go beyond trauma counseling. Inherently, the supports needed are social rather than psychological and include such things as normalizing life by reestablishing daily activities such as working for parents and education for children, protection from rape and other forms of gender-based violence, the development of livelihoods, and the strengthening of community networks of social support. Some of the activities called “counseling” in the post-earthquake context may contribute to social support by, for example, strengthening local networks and encouraging group discussion and problem-solving. If this is the case, then “counseling” training may to some extent add value to the earthquake relief efforts, even if the activities could be described more accurately as “peer support.”

However it is not just the kind of support—social or psychological—

that makes a difference. Across humanitarian sectors, the way in which

relief is provided has strong impact on psychosocial well-being. A

common error is to view earthquake survivors as passive victims who

need to be taken care of or healed by outsiders. In the present

emergency, the most effective means of providing psychosocial support

is through a process of community mobilization and empowerment wherein

communities make their own decisions and develop their own systems of

protection, care, and support for survivors. When communities make

choices about how to move forward, they reestablish a sense of control

that is powerful antidote to feelings of being overwhelmed. As they

engage in collective planning and action, they gain a sense of hope for

the future and move out of the victim’s role they too often are cast









An important way of enabling psychosocial support in an emergency is to

integrate psychosocial elements into the humanitarian response in different

sectors of aid. For example, in providing water and sanitation, one can

reduce the stresses and threats associated with rape and sexual violence by

engaging women in the assessment and planning process, building separate,

lockable latrines for girls and boys, and insuring latrines are well lit and

safe. Similarly, decisions about how to provide shelter can include women’s

participation and careful attention to issues of privacy, which is invariably

one of the most significant stressors in living in crowded camps. The

participation of local people in the process of humanitarian aid helps to

restore dignity and build collective hope and empowerment. Participation also

encourages a sense of local ownership for the relief and development process.









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发表于 2009-11-4 19:36 | 显示全部楼层
发表于 2010-1-6 17:28 | 显示全部楼层
thank you very much.

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