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[北京] 中科院2009考博英语翻译原文

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发表于 2009-4-4 17:58 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Efforts to provide professional trauma counseling assume that trauma is the main psychosocial issue following the earthquake. In fact, however, trauma is only a small part of a wide array of psychosocial issues that ought to be addressed. For many earthquake survivors, the main issue is not traumatic memories of the earthquake but stresses associated with their current living situation. These stresses include the lack of safety and security, the loss of livelihoods, lack of appropriate shelter, changes in family relations, threats of and exposure to gender-based violence, substance abuse, and uncertainties about the future. Because these stresses are holistic, they require comprehensive supports that go beyond trauma counseling. Inherently, the supports needed are social rather than psychological and include such things as normalizing life by reestablishing daily activities such as working for parents and education for children, protection from rape and other forms of gender-based violence, the development of livelihoods, and the strengthening of community networks of social support. Some of the activities called “counseling” in the post-earthquake context may contribute to social support by, for example, strengthening local networks and encouraging group discussion and problem-solving. If this is the case, then “counseling” training may to some extent add value to the earthquake relief efforts, even if the activities could be described more accurately as “peer support.”

专业心理创伤咨询人员往往认为,心理创伤是震后最主要的心理问题。实际上,心理创伤只是亟待解决的一系列繁杂的社会心理问题中很小的一部分。对于很多地震幸存者来说,最主要的问题并不是地震相关的创伤性记忆,而是关乎生存的生活压力。这些压力来自包括缺乏安全感与保卫力量,生活无着落,缺乏适宜避难所,家庭破裂,易受性暴力犯罪的伤害和威胁,药物滥用,以及未来的不确定性等因素。因为这些压力涉及生活的各个方面,所以需要比创伤咨询更加全面的救助。一般说来,咨询应着重从社会角度而非心理学角度出发,重建日常生活的方方面面,包括赡养老人,抚养子女,保护妇女免受性犯罪和暴力犯罪的侵扰,改善生活水平,加强来自社区网络的社会支持等等。有些组织的震后“咨询”活动提供了某种社会支持,例如,加强当地人际网络联系,鼓励群体讨论以及解决问题等。如果真正按照这种模式,这些咨询工作,即使更准确的被称为“同伴支持”,可能在某种程度上对抗灾援救还是起到了积极的作用。
However it is not just the kind of support—social or psychological—

that makes a difference. Across humanitarian sectors, the way in which

relief is provided has strong impact on psychosocial well-being. A

common error is to view earthquake survivors as passive victims who

need to be taken care of or healed by outsiders. In the present

emergency, the most effective means of providing psychosocial support

is through a process of community mobilization and empowerment wherein

communities make their own decisions and develop their own systems of

protection, care, and support for survivors. When communities make

choices about how to move forward, they reestablish a sense of control

that is powerful antidote to feelings of being overwhelmed. As they

engage in collective planning and action, they gain a sense of hope for

the future and move out of the victim’s role they too often are cast

into.

然而,并不是社会或者心理支持本身会产生多大的作用。各人

道主义组织提供救援的方式才是对心理健康产生重大影响的原因。一个普遍的错

误认识就是把地震幸存者看成是需要外人照顾或者帮助的受害者。

在当前的紧急状况下,可以提供的最有效的社会心理援助方式是动

员社区力量,赋予他们进行决策的权利,让他们建立起自己的幸存者保护、关怀和支持系

统。在社区团体对下一步工作如何展开进行商讨时,他们的控制感被重新建立起来,这是

治疗心理压力的良药。在制定计划和行动方案的过程中,当事人会

重新感到对未来的希望,快速从被设定的“受害者”角色中走出来。
An important way of enabling psychosocial support in an emergency is to

integrate psychosocial elements into the humanitarian response in different

sectors of aid. For example, in providing water and sanitation, one can

reduce the stresses and threats associated with rape and sexual violence by

engaging women in the assessment and planning process, building separate,

lockable latrines for girls and boys, and insuring latrines are well lit and

safe. Similarly, decisions about how to provide shelter can include women’s

participation and careful attention to issues of privacy, which is invariably

one of the most significant stressors in living in crowded camps. The

participation of local people in the process of humanitarian aid helps to

restore dignity and build collective hope and empowerment. Participation also

encourages a sense of local ownership for the relief and development process.

紧急状态下提供精神援助很重要的一个方法是通过各个部门和渠道提供人道援助。譬如

,提供用水和良好的卫生条件,让被强暴或者性侵犯的妇女一起参与面对现状的评估和

计划未来的步骤,提供独立分格可以上锁的小厕所给少男少女,保证小厕所的光线充足

和安全等等,都能为受害者减轻压力和恐惧。同样,邀请妇女们参加设计临时救护所,

在设计上重视保护隐私,因为隐私是在拥挤的帐篷里居住时最容易引起压力的因素之一

。当地群众和政府积极参与人道援助可以帮助他们重拾尊严,建立共同的希望和力量感

受。参与同时也让助人者对救济和发展过程有使命感。

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wangming11 + 2 非常感谢您对论坛的支持!

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发表于 2009-11-4 19:36 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢!!!!!!!!!
发表于 2010-1-6 17:28 | 显示全部楼层
thank you very much.
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